Saturday, February 8, 2020
For LSE MSc Finance - Personal Statement Example My decision to study mathematics in my undergraduate level was motivated by the fact that I always had a flair for the subject. I always regarded mathematics highly as its knowledge is also applied in other subjects such as physics and chemistry. I like solving mathematical problems that the subject provides. For me, mathematics is quite fascinating as it seems boundless and as such allows considerable choice for additional research. My main objective of studying the subject was, therefore, to learn to think and look at things differently, from a different angle than people doing degrees in humanities. While pursuing my undergraduate degree at the University of Edinburg, my mathematical skills have been modelled in a way that I am now in a position to see many things from a mathematical perspective. Some of the courses that have had a significant impact in my mathematical career growth include financial mathematics, Stochastic Modelling and Introduction to Number Theory. I am also doing a project at the moment that stochastically analyses are queuing at call centres. Having almost completed all the branches of the syllabus, I believe I am well-rounded and ready to further my education by pursuing Master of Science degree in finance. Throughout my two final years at the university, my interest in finance and financial analysis was growing each day. I want to get an opportunity to study at one of the greatest universities in UK and worldwide. We are living in a world that, unlike before, continues to experience unprecedented financial and economic meltdown. The recent crises in the global markets and the effects of globalization especially in emerging markets have necessitated a deeper understanding of the subject of finance. This is largely because through the finance knowledge; we can be able to build more robust systems and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Roman History Essay The history of Rome first century of Roman Empire is the time of toughening of emperor regime and strengthening of its authoritarian character. The indicated process, the most vivid external illustration was practice of political repressions, was stipulated by personal qualities of regents, and the very essence of principate regime. The scale and character of emperor terror in the 1st century is subject of discussions in the modern historiography, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter which point of view we have, it will not be a mistake to tell that its influence for Roman society was very great. The transformation from Republic to Empire event of revolution meaning for Roman history Ã¢â¬â wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the same important for AugustÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporaries. Those advantages, which were the result of principate Ã¢â¬â civil peace, personal safety, economic goods Ã¢â¬â seemed to overshadow the new political changes (The End of the Roman Empire by Donald Kagan, p. 85). It took several dozens of years of Pax Augusti, where the political stability, which became a usual thing, partially lost status of absolute value for the Romans. The necessity to preserve Caesars power in the name of total safety was not so obvious for generation which grew during August government. Those who survived Tiberius repressions, madness of Caligula, petty tyranny of Neuron understood that the governmental regime of Rome experienced changes during August government and the very time of it starts to be understood as historical edge, which separate Senate republic and Roman people (Senatus Populusque Romanum) from Caesars Empire (The End of the Roman Empire by Donald Kagan, p. 92). This terror delivered a strong blow to old aristocracy: there were a lot of representatives of noble families: Aurelius, Domicius, Calpurnius, Emiluius, Scribonius, Eluis, etc. Still, even if not the terror, the old Nobiles early or later would disappear from the scene, giving place to new social forces. A new generation managed to grew in conditions of terrorist regime of Julius-Claudius, generation which will manage to determine the face of Empire. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s realize the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"NobilesÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬Å"NobilesÃ¢â¬ (Latin Ã¢â¬ËnobilitasÃ¢â¬â¢) means noble, the best. The estate of Nobiles appeared during the war of patricians with plebs. Thanks to reforms of Servius Tuliy, in accordance with which the position of citizen was determined exclusively by property qualification, but not by belonging to some class, plebs became Roman citizens and the top of this class became nobility. Importance of Tulius constitution was also in fact that it was an important stage in development of new elite class of aristocracy Ã¢â¬â Nobiles. Common interests of land and slaves proprietors help consolidation of power class. Rich plebs and patricians are making one new class Ã¢â¬â Nobiles. So we can make important conclusion: if during the epoch of kings Senate stayed, by essence, patricians, so it becomes patrician-plebs during the Republic. Some patrician clans loose their importance and gradually disappeared. Some plebs clans, on the contrary, gained importance. Another fact is that Senate aristocracy consisted not only of plebs and patricians but also so-called Ã¢â¬Å"new peopleÃ¢â¬ (hominess novi). They were not a part Senate aristocracy and were able to gain some high positions only as exceptions. Economic basis of Nobiles-magnates was huge land-owning: Nobiles took the best lands; former lands of rulers became latifundias. Together with Italian patrimonies the rich gained big patrimonies in provinces as well. Frequent military campaigns to the other countries make rich military commanders from Senate class. They received big sums of money from provinces, the finances of Nobiles from wars and robberies of provinces were the basis for land development (Donald Kagan, et. al., The Western Heritage, vol. 1, chapter 5). Classical slave-owning were developed. The historians think that Senate oligarchy had several political means of influence the country such as: Consulate power; Appointing of dictators; Split in the environment of national tribunes; Opposition to decisions of plebs national meetings; Religion as strong support of aristocracy. Former simplicity changed by luxuriance. The next stage of struggle with regime of Senate oligarchy in the history of Republic became Caesars dictatorship. In 44 AD senate has given him a title of lifelong, eternal dictator (dictator in perpetuum), he has received also a title father of fatherland (parens patriae), a title of emperor which became part of his name, specifying connection with his army; and has been elected great pontific. Caesar has shown himself everywhere in purple clothes of triumphal accompanied by 72 leactors. Despite of dictatorship regime, traditional republican institutes were saved: a post of consul, national assembly which obeyed the orders of Caesar. The senate reorganized by dictator and consisting now of 900 person mainly his officers and even former libertines was the same. Caesar became the lifelong monarch. Bended before destiny and power of this person, writes Ploutarch, and allowed to put a bridle on them, Romans considered that individual power is rest from civil wars and other misfortunes. They have chosen him lifelong dictator. This irremovability in connection with unlimited autocracy was public tyranny (Donald Kagan, et. al., The Western Heritage, vol. 1, ch. 5). 40-ies AD were marked by violent struggle against senatorial oligarchy and formation of Second triumvirate (43 AD) for this struggle. Mark Antony, Lepide and Octavian became the triumvirers, which have received from the senate the extraordinary powers for the establishment of state (tresviri reipublicae constituendae), but in fact all these was made for struggle against republicans. Triumviri first of all acted as enemies of senatorial oligarchy, the main aim of them was destruction of old aristocracy. By SullaÃ¢â¬â¢s example, they made lists of political opponents (proscription). Those repressions by quantity of victims and cruelty were much crueler then those of Sulla: they killed more then 300 senators and 2 thousand of horsemen. Cyceron was the head of opposition in Senate against triumvirs and particularly, against consul Ã¢â¬â a friend of Caesar, by whose offer Antonio was declared the enemy of fatherland. Cyceron made 14 speeches against him, accusing Antonio that he leads amoral way of life, drunkenness and debauchery; called him scoundrel, impudent, fool, coward, etc. Cyceron, the prominent Roman speaker, philosopher and political leader, was killed for his speeches. The killers brought his head to Antonio, who was finally satisfied (Donald Kagan, et. al., The Western Heritage, vol. 1, ch. 6). The Caesarians won a victory over Republicans and established an Emperor regime in January 13, year 27 Ã¢â¬â Principate Ã¢â¬â the early form of Empire with August at the head. His full name was as follows: Imperator Caesar Augustus, Divi Filius. Still, we can admit that Augustus really became the first dictator in world history to call for a nationwide plebiscite. Political system of Principate formally was based on traditional republican magistrates Ã¢â¬â the reason of it was that Senate gave to August extremely powers in order to renovate former Republic (N. Lewis M. Reinhold, Roman Civilization, I: The Republic and the Augustan Age, p. 260). But in fact all of them were now united in AugustÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, what contradicted the Republican constitution. Still, legally Senate (600 persons) was considered to be supreme governmental structure with court and legislativeÃ Ã functions, but it also became an obedient weapon in emperorÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, because Senate confirmed all propositions of his emperor. So, Seneca was right, when he exclaimed: Ã¢â¬Å"The Governor hided in the republican clothes!Ã¢â¬ When I studied the history of Ancient Rome, the book I liked was the book of R. Syme Ã¢â¬Å"Roman revolutionÃ¢â¬ (1939). A.J.P. Taylor wrote that the book is a work of brilliant scholarship which can be enjoyed by the expert and the layman alike. Another estimation of Ronald SymeÃ¢â¬â¢s work was made by Sir Maurice Bowra who said that Ã¢â¬Å"his work is extraordinarily persuasive and interesting; it is the best book on Roman History that has appeared for many yearsÃ¢â¬ . The idea of this book is to examine transformation of Rome from Roman Republic to Empire like some kind of revolution, the main force of which was new Roman Army Ã¢â¬â armed proletariat. This book is a bright example of usage new prosophographic method of those times. This method was born in the West from the beginning of XX century. In contrast to MommsenÃ¢â¬â¢s scheme, which supposed the existence of some ideological pivot in the outline of events, which determined activity of political groups, this method makes the main accent on egoistic essence of human being Ã¢â¬â subject of politics. The central theme of researches becomes not the struggle of ideas or the struggle of ideologies, but the rivalry of personal ambitions. So, this is the reason that representatives of prosophographic method have as direction of Ã¢â¬Å"partyÃ¢â¬ war the war of family and clan groups. The scientists consider Geltzer, Muntzer and Syme to be the founders of this method. The first monograph of M. Geltzer is published in 1912 under the name Ã¢â¬Å"Nobiles of Roman RepublicÃ¢â¬ , where the author suggests original conception, in accordance with which the Roman Nobiles consisted of Senator class and horsemen. But still, the main merit of this researcher is that he paid special attention to relative, friendly, client and other personal relations, with Ã¢â¬ËfidesÃ¢â¬â¢ in its basis. Developing his ideas, Geltzer criticized the conception, which was quite popular thanks to Mommzen, the idea of which was Ã¢â¬Å"two-partyÃ¢â¬ character of political life in Rome. Ronald Syme considers that political struggle in Rome was determined not by struggle of the parties or political programs, but disputes of noble families, with admirers, which made a kind of group among the noble families, connected with them by extremely personal relations (Donald Kagan, et. al., The Western Heritage, vol. 1, ch. 6). Ronald Syme wrote other prominent words which are worthwhile to cite here: The nobiles by their ambition and their feuds, had not merely destroyed their spurious republic: they had ruined the Roman People. There is something more important than political liberty; and political rights are a means, not an end in themselves. That end is security of life and property: it could not be guaranteed by the constitution of Republican Rome. Worn and broken by civil war and disorder, The Roman people was ready to surrender the ruinous privilege of freedom and submit to strict government as the beginning of time.So order came to Rome. Acriora ex eo vincula, as Tacitus observes. Ronald Syme considers Caesar not the revolutionary, but rather an opportunist and realist because his actions and deeds, which was more conservative and much more Roman citizen, then some can him consider to be (R. Syme, The Roman Revolution, p.312); he determines Octavian as a real revolutionary leader. The most interesting, still, are conclusions made by Syme about Caesars dictatorship, his personality and character of power. Ronald Syme doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t see the necessity to suppose that Caesar had desire to create ellinistic monarchy. His political aims were determined by desire to liquidate consequences of civil war. He understood, of course, that government of Nobiles became anachronism in the world orb, as well as the government of Roman plebs from the moment when all Italics were able to take part in vote (Gabba, E. Ã¢â¬ËTrue history and false history in classical antiquityÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Roman Studies 71 (1981) 50-62). But even in this position Caesar could be satisfied by dictatorship as it was; his autocratic position was forced to the great extent. In such a way Ronald Syme in his work Ã¢â¬Å"The Roman RevolutionÃ¢â¬ gave very careful and reserved estimation or Caesar. Caesar wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t appraised the title of Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionaryÃ¢â¬ even, although Syme examines the civil war after the CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death like a further intensification of revolution, and Ã¢â¬Å"the successor of Caesar, Octavian, is estimated as revolutionary leader. The arguments Syme uses, are often seem to be ineluctable. This conception influenced considerably the ideas and works of different scientists regarding transformation of Rome from Roman Republic to Empire. Ronald Syme writes the following about the Caesar: The rule of the nobiles, he [Caesar] could see, was an anachronism in a world-empire; and so was the power of the Roam plebs when all Italy enjoyed the franchise. Caesar in truth was more conservative and Roman that many have fancied; no Roman conceived of government save through an oligarchy. The researchers who tried to investigate the nature of problem of principate try to imagine this transformation not like simple change of political forms, but like a part of more wide social-political revolution. We mean, first of all, the theory of Ã¢â¬Å"Roman revolutionÃ¢â¬ , which is expressed with full strength in the SymeÃ¢â¬â¢s work. The essence of changes, which took place in Roman government at the edge of old and new era, by opinion of English researcher, was that oligarchy of Roman Nobiles changed by other, consisted of different groups of Italian people. The principate appeared as a result of compromise between revolutionary leader, Octavian and Republican aristocracy, which lost its monopoly for power during the Civil Wars of I century before our century. This compromise, stipulated by Constitutional Agreement of AD 23, became the basis of political position of August, which was determined, besides the extremely powers, given to him by Senate and people, by the special influence of his personality (anctoritas Augusti), which had great power (Alfoldy, G. Two Principes: Augustus and Sir Ronald Syme, p.101-105). To call this system, created by August, the monarchy or not to call Ã¢â¬â by opinion of R. Syme is the matter of taste. It is important, that in fact this power was absolute, and there is no doubts and other opinions. The Republicanism of the Empire founder can be considered the fiction of historians of XIX-XX centuries: Tacit and Gybbon understood the real matter of facts more clearly then majority of the modern researchers, considers Syme (Alfoldy, G. Two Principes: Augustus and Sir Ronald Syme, p.112). Still, some historians donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with Ronald Syme, who declares that the decisive role in the subsequent constitutional transformation played people who were very close to August: Vipsany Agrippa and Lyvia. Ronald Syme is sure that the relations of direct subordination between principles and proconsuls of Senate provinces are regulated only starting from the year 23. His point of view, as far as I think, is without any doubt, quite close to truth: it is not accidentally almost immediately after Ã¢â¬Å"regulationÃ¢â¬ of year 23 August undertakes long inspection trip at his Eastern lands. It goes without saying that Ronald Syme also divides great attention to problem of organization of public opinion in his work Ã¢â¬Å"The Roman RevolutionÃ¢â¬ (R. Syme, The Roman Revolution, pp. 459-475). We are fully agree with conclusion of English historian, that laudation addressed to principal by Virgily, Goratio and other prominent poets of those days, cannot be considered only as usual court flattery. The poets of August government are natives of Italy. The opinions of Italian people are reflected in their creativity like in the mirror. (R. Syme, The Roman Revolution, p. 333). I think, particularly, that this work of Ronald Syme can be called one of the most important books on history of Rome. The book is written in amazing style and actually, I really think that it can change the life of person whoÃ¢â¬â¢ll read it carefully and attentively. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s have a look nor for Roman problem with SuetoniusÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes. When he published one of the most famous books Ã¢â¬Å"The Twelve CaesarsÃ¢â¬ , Roman Empire already existed for more them 1,5 centuries. 150 years before the ancestor of dictator Caesar, Octavian became the only governor of huge Roman government. Civil wars, which took place for more then 20 years, were finished and the epoch of Roman republic finished as well. The fall of Republic was caused by a number of economic, social and political reasons. As result of long-lasting wars which lasted for more then three centuries, Rome, which once was an unpretentious city-government, subordinated almost the whole Mediterranean area. Rome managed to subordinate nations with very different level of social and cultural development: Greece, which already overcame its power, Asia, Syria, Egypt, where forms of property and exploitation, which were popular at the times of Ancient East, were combined with developed slave-owner relations. Northern Africa, Gallya, Spain, divided into plenty of regions and tribes, part of which already knew developed slavery, trade, city life, and part of which still lived in other conditions or was subordinated to kin aristocracy (JOHN W. BURKE, Emblematic Scenes in Suetonius Vitellius , p.12). So, explanation of events needs examination of facts in their connection and cooperation, where good and bad events are the reasons of the same motives. This is the way Plutarch and Tacit do, although for one of them this connection is spread for the whole Roman history, and for the other one is limited by life of one person. Estimation of events, still, needs maximum possible isolation of the fact: only in this position weÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to compare it and estimate if it is good or not. This is the way Suetonius acts. He gives in his work a chain of biographies instead of consequence of events, and he proposes to the reader in each biography plenty of facts (JOHN W. BURKE, Emblematic Scenes in Suetonius Vitellius , p.13). His emperors seems to pass some kind of exam for a good governor for people who read his works, and he takes into account not the motives of their actions, but the only actions and their results. Tacit wanted to scare the reader, showing him the fatal inevitability of degeneration of the Emperor Rome; Plutarch wanted to console the reader, giving him moral examples, which they should obey and which they should avoid. Both of them wanted to touch the heart of their heroes and to find out some properties which are common for past, present and future. The history continues to live in modern time for them. Tacit feels that cruelties of former emperors can be renewed in any new governor, Plutarch knows that merits and demerits of ancient governors are still alive and will remain the example and the kind of lesson for all the times. Ã Suetonius doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know these feelings (JOHN W. BURKE, Emblematic Scenes in Suetonius Vitellius , p.15). The contemporaneity for him already solved all questions which were accusing the past, the truth was reached and the former mistakes will never happen again: these were particulars, accidental details, which cannot be considered as common facts. So, having a look at them, he notices only the external side of events, he tries to find the features which are individual, different, unusual and bright; the peculiarity in small details is much more interesting for him, then similarity in common. To tel with other words, he aspires to interesting facts, but not to edifying ones. This is the task and this is the approach: estimation instead of explanation, a number of facts instead of chain of events, interesting facts instead of edifying. This approach determines all character of SuetoniusÃ¢â¬â¢ biographies and in choice and place of the facts. The author is concentrated at the personality of emperor all the time. This is not the history of Empire, but a history of emperors. Suetonius doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t depict historical background: at best he reminds about it, supposing that all considerable events are familiar to the reader. Everything that takes place at the huge area of Empire seems to enter SuetoniusÃ¢â¬â¢s work only by weak echo (JOHN W. BURKE, Emblematic Scenes in Suetonius Vitellius , p.16).Ã Events in provinces seem even donÃ¢â¬â¢t existing for him. Speaking about the Empire expansion he says only in few words:Ã¢â¬ so and so areas are turned into provincesÃ¢â¬ , or in better case he determines their location. (The Twelve Caesars (Penguin Classics) by Suetonius, Yul. 25, Tib. 16). So, the city of Rome and EmperorÃ¢â¬â¢s court are the focus of authorÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Ã Suetonius enumerates emperorÃ¢â¬â¢s building and spectacles, laws and addicts, shows relation of the governor to Senate, horsemen and nation, special attention he divides to organization of court and legal activity of the emperor. People who influence emperor and governmental affairs are in the shadow: for example, Agrippa and Mecenat are noted briefly in AugustusÃ¢â¬â¢ biography; in TiberiusÃ¢â¬â¢ biography only Sean was mentioned, and Macron wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t noted at all; there is no place for Seneca in NeroÃ¢â¬â¢s biography as well as for Nimphidius Sabin at biography of Galba; only while describing biography of Claudius, he enumerates his advisors- libertines, which considered the emperor their toy. But at the same time the figure of emperor, overshadowing all the other, is described with full details: here, in description of person, embodying the whole Roman Empire, there are no inessential details. He carefully collects facts regarding his health, character, habits, interests, way of life; personal life of the emperor seems to be integral part of his governmental activity, it opens to the reader the inclinations of governor in a simple person and allows to foreseen the features of politics with the help of character features. Besides, details of personal life of emperor, of course, allowed adding the interest to Suetonius work, which was of such great importance to the author and the readers. Suetonius writes more details about love adventures of Caesar then about conquest of Gally; he collects anecdotes of Vespassian and at the same time he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t write anything about the famous resolution regarding division of power between Senate and Vespassian (JOHN W. BURKE, Emblematic Scenes in Suetonius Vitellius , p.17). The biographical scheme consists of four parts: life of emperor before he came to power, governmental activity, personal life, death and funeral. The first and last parts author use chronological scheme of events, if necessary, but the middle parts (which are dedicated to power of emperor) are completely built by logical scheme, with columns, headings and rubrics. Neque per tempora, sed per species Ã¢â¬â this is the main principle of Suetonius writing. Suetonius wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t an independent political philosopher. But still, his biographies are of great interest as a document of epoch, when the theory of monarchy was formed. In their details, they give full program, which should follow the leader, in case he wanted to be approved by ruling classes. Some features were the result of specific conditions; some seemed to be actual and real. This is the reason of interest to his work during the middle ages and nowadays, and thanks to this condition his work is quite popular and interesting even for modern reader. But, letÃ¢â¬â¢s come back to the Roman history. Variety of philosophic conceptions at the end of II and I century BC was only one demonstration of complete dissidence of nationality, which was monolithic before; thisÃ Ã dissidence took place in all spheres of culture, and first of all in interpretation of the most actual problems of Roman history for modern political struggle. In such a way, for Sallustius, the active supporter of Caesar, opponent of Senate party, Roman past was an example. But now the government fell into decay and seemed to die inevitably if some changes will not happen. The cause of decay is terrible spoiling of temper, which touched plebs as well, but the main damage caused to Nobile. So, what are the reasons of doom of the Nobiles? To tell the truth, the reason is always the same. Ã¢â¬Å"Often I think over the facts, writes Sallustiy,- in which way the great people achieve success and glory, how the nation raises with the help of prominent governors, which circumstances are the reasons of fall for huge countries and always I have the only one reason for all these: the same merits or the same demerits are the reason of these opposite events: all people who became winners despised the wealth, and all beaten ardently pressed toward themÃ¢â¬ . So to reach true greatness for a separate person and a government in common, is possible only by one way: to despise the wealth and physical enjoyments, to exercise in Ã¢â¬Å"work, patience, good events and brave actionsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â it means, by way of moral perfection. These short formulas are the beginning of SallustiusÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of moral collapse. Nobile became corruptible, dissolute, self-interested and always been the enemy of common people, who struggled for freedom during the time of war between patricians and plebs. Some of the main reasons of doom of the Nobile can be called also two passions, two demerits, which are developed in the Roman society: desire for power, ambitions (ambitio) and desire for money, self-interest (avaritia). Ã¢â¬Å"Ambition made people to become liars; to have one in mind and to tell the other in words, to estimate friendly and enemy relations not by essence, but by benefit and to bemore interested in attractive appearance then in inner contentÃ¢â¬ (Sallustius). The second demerit is even more dangerous for society, Ã¢â¬Å"because self-interest radically undermines faithfulness, honesty and other positive qualities in human being, and puts in the forefront cruelty and arrogance, it teaches people to treat the Gods without any regard and to count that you can buy everythingÃ¢â¬ . Roman society once and for all was stucked in demerits and crimes. Only wealth is praised, virtue is downtrodden, poverty is the synonym of shame, and honesty seems to be almost unreliable. The youth couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t resist to all these and under influence of greed and luxuriance turned from one side to robberies, and from the other Ã¢â¬â to mad expenditures, forgot about shame and modesty and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to obey the laws- neither human, nor God. Rome was great until plebs and their representatives (national tribunes) remained free and strong Ã¢â¬â government became stronger thanks to its victories. The power of people and fear of strong external enemies held the Nobile in leash, but when Carthage was destroyed, this limiting beginning disappeared. The craving for power and wealth started to be shown more and more openly. Aristocracy in their aspiration for wealth ruined and corrupted by tips the nation which lost the freedom they won before. And still, there is only one factor which is still able to save Rome Ã¢â¬â nation. The task is to return freedom and power, usurped by the Nobile (P. A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic, p.65-72). Nation should realize their power, to remember that all decisions of consuls and Senate have meaning until the nation obeys them, and to act in the same manner Ã¢â¬â actively like plebses were struggling with patricians. Works Cited: Alfoldy, G. Two Principes: Augustus and Sir Ronald Syme, Athenaeum 81.1 (1993) Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939) The End of the Roman Empire by Donald Kagan Donald Kagan, et. al., The Western Heritage, vol. 1 (chap. 5-6) A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic (1988) Lewis M. Reinhold, Roman Civilization, I: The Republic and the Augustan Age (3 ed. Columbia University Press, 1990) The Twelve Caesars (Penguin Classics) by Suetonius, Penguin Books; Reprint edition (August 1, 1991) JOHN W. BURKE, Emblematic Scenes in Suetonius Vitellius (July, 1998) Gabba, E. Ã¢â¬ËTrue history and false history in classical antiquityÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Roman Studies 71 (1981)
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Many times an author draws from his or her personal life and incorporates his or her past into the short story. Alice Walker is one of the most respected, well-known African-American authors of her time. Alice Walker experienced a lifetime of hardship that would influence her later works, helping her to become such an astonishing author. In her short story "Everyday Use", Walker tells the story of her heritage and enables the reader to encounter the values in her life. On February 9, 1944 in Eatonton, Georgia, Willie Lee and Minnie Grant gave birth to their eighth child; a precious little girl whom they named Alice. As an extremely intelligent child Alice was always exploring the world around her. "She said that one of her favorite pastimes in the world was 'people watching.'" (http://members.tripod.com/chrisdanielle/alicebio_1.html). When Walker was eight years old, she and her brother were playing a game of cowboys and Indians outside when Alice's brother accidentally hit her in the eye with a BB pellet, blinding her in her right eye. Although that didn't stop Alice, she went on achieving excellent grades and going on to college. She first attended Spelman College (an African-American institution) on a handicap scholarship she'd been granted. Unhappy with the way Spelman's treated her for her involvement of activism and civil rights, she accepted a scholarship from Saint Lawrence College in New York. Alice was faced with great diff iculties such as abortion and suicide, but she pulled through and graduated in 1965 kicking off the begging of an unforgettable and ongoing career. (http://members.tripod.com/chrisdanielle/alicebio_1.html) By distinguishing the family-oriented round characters in the short story "Everyday Use", Alice Walker illustrates the common mistake of placing the association of heritage solely in material objects. Walker presents Mama and Maggie, the younger daughter, as an example that heritage in both knowledge and form passes from one generation to another through a learning and experience connection. However, by a broken connection, Dee, the older daughter, represents a misconception of heritage as materialistic. During Dee's visit to Mama and Maggie, the contrast of the characters becomes the conflict, because Dee... ... family values, Mama takes the quilts from Dee who "held the quilts securely in her arms, stroking them clutching them closely to her bosom" (Walker, 91) like sacred representation, and then gives them to their rightful owner: Maggie. After Mama gives Maggie the quilts, Dee says, "You just don't understand," "Your heritage" (Walker, 91). Dee believes heritage and family values to be materialistic things. Dee understands that the quilts were hand-made, but she lacks the knowledge and history behind these quilts. On the other hand Mama and Maggie understand the meaning of the quilts and know that they were made for everyday use. Ironically, Dee criticizes Mama for not understanding heritage when, in fact, Dee fails to really understand her own heritage. Dee mistakenly places heritage wholly in what she owns, not what she knows. Work-Cited Living By Grace. Danielle, Chris. 1999. Tripod. 03-10-2005. http://members.tripod.com/chrisdanielle/index.html Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use". Literature An Introduction to Reading and Writing Sixth Edition. Ed. Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001, 360-365. Walker & Everyday Use Essay -- essays research papers Many times an author draws from his or her personal life and incorporates his or her past into the short story. Alice Walker is one of the most respected, well-known African-American authors of her time. Alice Walker experienced a lifetime of hardship that would influence her later works, helping her to become such an astonishing author. In her short story "Everyday Use", Walker tells the story of her heritage and enables the reader to encounter the values in her life. On February 9, 1944 in Eatonton, Georgia, Willie Lee and Minnie Grant gave birth to their eighth child; a precious little girl whom they named Alice. As an extremely intelligent child Alice was always exploring the world around her. "She said that one of her favorite pastimes in the world was 'people watching.'" (http://members.tripod.com/chrisdanielle/alicebio_1.html). When Walker was eight years old, she and her brother were playing a game of cowboys and Indians outside when Alice's brother accidentally hit her in the eye with a BB pellet, blinding her in her right eye. Although that didn't stop Alice, she went on achieving excellent grades and going on to college. She first attended Spelman College (an African-American institution) on a handicap scholarship she'd been granted. Unhappy with the way Spelman's treated her for her involvement of activism and civil rights, she accepted a scholarship from Saint Lawrence College in New York. Alice was faced with great diff iculties such as abortion and suicide, but she pulled through and graduated in 1965 kicking off the begging of an unforgettable and ongoing career. (http://members.tripod.com/chrisdanielle/alicebio_1.html) By distinguishing the family-oriented round characters in the short story "Everyday Use", Alice Walker illustrates the common mistake of placing the association of heritage solely in material objects. Walker presents Mama and Maggie, the younger daughter, as an example that heritage in both knowledge and form passes from one generation to another through a learning and experience connection. However, by a broken connection, Dee, the older daughter, represents a misconception of heritage as materialistic. During Dee's visit to Mama and Maggie, the contrast of the characters becomes the conflict, because Dee... ... family values, Mama takes the quilts from Dee who "held the quilts securely in her arms, stroking them clutching them closely to her bosom" (Walker, 91) like sacred representation, and then gives them to their rightful owner: Maggie. After Mama gives Maggie the quilts, Dee says, "You just don't understand," "Your heritage" (Walker, 91). Dee believes heritage and family values to be materialistic things. Dee understands that the quilts were hand-made, but she lacks the knowledge and history behind these quilts. On the other hand Mama and Maggie understand the meaning of the quilts and know that they were made for everyday use. Ironically, Dee criticizes Mama for not understanding heritage when, in fact, Dee fails to really understand her own heritage. Dee mistakenly places heritage wholly in what she owns, not what she knows. Work-Cited Living By Grace. Danielle, Chris. 1999. Tripod. 03-10-2005. http://members.tripod.com/chrisdanielle/index.html Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use". Literature An Introduction to Reading and Writing Sixth Edition. Ed. Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001, 360-365.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Youth violence is prevalent in almost every country, and in an effort to lessen it, it is important for us to understand the primary reasons behind it. If we observe keenly, violence is extremely prevalent among youth from different walks of life. There seems to be a driving force (or forces), that urges these young people to engage in such violence. It is very common nowadays to hear news about teenagers or high school students taking part in brutal killings, homi-cide, murder or even suicide. However, I think youth violence is not restricted to such forms. Bullying, for ex-ample, happens everyday in almost every school in this country. The very fact that violence is becoming more widespread in our time is enough reason for us to identify and understand the main reasons behind such vi-olence. The environment where a person grows up plays a major factor in his/her participation with vi-olence. I believe that a young man or woman can be directly influenced to do violent acts if he/she has wit-nessed or experienced it on a personal level. If a child grows up in an environment where violence seems to be a normal part of daily life, then it is almost certain that the child will adapt the same tendency to engage in violent acts. For example, if a boy often sees his father hurting his mother, this could lead to two things. Either the child will adapt the same attitude of cruelty towards women, or he will develop a strong anger against men who hurt women. Eventually, as the child grows up and becomes a teenager, he might find ways to bring out his or her pent up emotions by engaging in similar violent acts. The content behind modern media and entertainment can also be a major cause of youth violence today. Parents may be able to discipline and guide their kids at home, but when these same kids open the television, they can watch the news where people are being murdered, folks are hurting each other and crimes are being committed everyday. In many television shows and movies, brutal acts of murder and torture are shown as if they are a normal part of daily life. Other films teach young people the value of revenge, and portray violence as the righteous way to vindicate the characters. The fearful thing is that these acts of violence can be watched by children and teenagers unrestricted. They do not need to personally experience crime and brutality because these things are already fed daily into their heads: through the television, news, movies and the internet. There are thousands of websites where young people can freely watch videos with graphic content and gore. In this way, violence becomes a part of a young personÃ¢â¬â¢s daily thinking. Suddenly, it stops being a scary thing to him or her. Instead, violence becomes more and more appealing and interesting to the young person. He then finds ways to do these same things in real life. Just a few years ago, news broke out about a young, introverted student who one day went to school with a firearm and entered the classroom shooting all her classmates. Similar events have occurred in previous years in different parts of America. Homicides happen in schools where young people are supposed to be safe. What is the reason why seemingly harmless and meek young people have engaged in brutal killings? I believe one of the reasons is social alienation. The current society we live in is full of racism, minority branding and social biases. Some young people find themselves in school environments where they are treated as outcasts possibly because of their nationality, religious beliefs and other unique characteristics. Every young person is longing for genuine belongingness and attachment, an environment where he or she is accepted. Unfortunately, some teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs for social belongingness are not being met. Instead, they are exposed to a cruel world where people are cold, indifferent and judgmental. In my opinion, this leads to feelings of anger or resentment against the world in general. This anger or resentment may be kept deeply hidden in the thoughts of a young person. It could grow stronger as years go by, until at last, it reaches a certain level where the young person gives in to his strong feelings and resorts to acts of violence towards others. In conclusion, a young personÃ¢â¬â¢s environment, exposure to violence through the media, and feelings of social alienation, all contribute to youth violence. There are many other reasons and causes, and we could not possibly point out all of them. However, I believe the important thing is that we are aware of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happen-ing around us. It is my conviction that learning, studying and fully understanding the main causes of youth violence will help us become better citizens and effective parents in the future. There are some solutions that can help to avoid or to solve teenage violence: Parents and others who care for young people can help them learn to deal with emotions without using violence. Because violence results from conflicts between people, it can be prevented by learning nonviolent ways to control anger and solve problems. Teaching your teen, through words and actions, that violence is never an acceptable form of behavior is very important. The tips provided here can help you. Quick Facts Ã¢â¬ ¢Almost 16 million teens have witnessed some form of violent assault. Ã¢â¬ ¢About one in eight people murdered in the United States each year are younger than 18 years of age. Ã¢â¬ ¢Research shows a link between violent television programs and aggressive behavior in teens who watch those programs. Ã¢â¬ ¢Most injuries and violent deaths occur between people who know each other. If there is violence in your family, it increases the risk of your teen becoming involved in future violence. Ã¢â¬ ¢A gun in the home is more likely to be used to kill a family member or friend than to kill an in-truder. Tips for Parents 1. Start talking about ways to reduce or eliminate violence. Ã¢â¬ ¢Team up with other parents and get involved in your community; join your neighbors in activities to reduce violence. Ã¢â¬ ¢Talk to your teen about ways to solve arguments and fights without weapons or violence. Ã¢â¬ ¢Advise your teen to talk to you or a trusted adult to avoid potentially violent situations. If you suspect a problem with your teen, start talking about it. 2. Monitor the media. Ã¢â¬ ¢Limit the amount of television your teen watches to 1 to 2 hours a day (includ-ing music videos and video games). Ã¢â¬ ¢Do not allow your teen to watch violent movies or TV programs. Ã¢â¬ ¢If something violent comes on the TV, talk about what is wrong with the pro-gram and how the situation could have been handled in a nonviolent way. 3. Be a role model by handling problems in nonviolent ways. Ã¢â¬ ¢Don't hit your teen. Model non-physical solutions to problem solving. Ã¢â¬ ¢Count to 10. Cool off. If you can't control your anger, tell your teen you need some time to get your thoughts and feelings under control. Ã¢â¬ ¢Problem solve with your teen. Think together about options and consequences for behaviors. Ã¢â¬ ¢Set limits, make sure your teen knows the rules and consequences, and follow through. Ã¢â¬ ¢Don't carry a gun. This sends a message to your teen that using guns solves problems. 4. Reduce the threat of gun-related violence to your teen. Ã¢â¬ ¢Make certain your teen does not have access to guns. If you have a gun, re-move it from your home or store it unloaded and locked up. Lock and store bullets separately. Tell your teen to stay away from potentially dangerous situations and from guns in homes of friends or places where he or she may visit or play. Ã¢â¬ ¢Keep in mind that teens don't always follow the rules. Also, teens are attracted to guns and see guns as symbols of power. Since you can't always count on teens to stay away from guns, you have to keep guns away from them. 5. Help your teen deal with anger. Ã¢â¬ ¢Anger is a normal feeling. Anger does not have to be bad if it is expressed ap-propriately. Teach your teen that it is okay to be angry, but it's not okay to throw a punch. People must control their anger before they can control a situation. Ã¢â¬ ¢Sometimes counseling is necessary to help teens deal with their anger appro-priately. Steps your teen can take to avoid violence or injury 1. Recognize situations or events that are likely to escalate into violence. 2. Stop whatever you are doing and count to 10 backward. This will help you think about your feelings before they get out of control. 3. If you can't control your anger, get away. Take a time out. 4. Think about the options and consequences of your actions. For example, hitting someone could result in suspension from school or injury. 5. If necessary, get help from a third party to solve differences. 6. Cool off. Make sure you are calm and then talk to the person. 7. Listen carefully to the other person's opinion. 8. Be assertive, not aggressive. Stand up for your ideals. Begin every sentence with Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ For example: Ã¢â¬Å"I feel this wayÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"I don't like it whenÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ 9. Be willing to admit and be responsible for something you may have done wrong. 10. Respond with your HEAD, not your fists, threats, or weapons.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Immigration is a highly controversial and big problem in the United States today. Ã¢â¬Å"While some characterize our immigration crisis as solely an issue of the 11 to 12 million unauthorized immigrants living in this country, our problems extend beyond the number of undocumented people to a broader range of issues. The lack of a comprehensive federal solution has created a slew of lopsided, enforcement-only initiatives that have cost the country billions of dollars while failing to end unauthorized immigration.Ã¢â¬ The bigger issue with immigration is that we do not have a system in place to stop it on all the levels federal, state, and local the only system we have is when we find them we deport them which ends up costing billions of dollars. How the immigration system works that allows some immigrants into the country is they have a four main ways of immigrating to the United States, family based immigration, employment based immigration, humanitarian based immigration, and oth er ways. Ã¢â¬Å"Family unification is an important principle governing immigration policy. The family-based immigration category allows U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents (LPRs) to bring certain family members to the United States. There are 480,000 family-based visas available every year. Family-based immigrants are admitted to the U.S. either asimmediate relatives of U.S. citizens or through the family preference system.Ã¢â¬ There are only a limited number each year of the family visas so there areShow MoreRelatedImmigration And The United States986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImmigration in the United States continues to increase rapidly year by year. According to an analysis of monthly Census Bureau data by the Center for Immigration Studies, the immigration population in the United States, both legal and illegal, hit a record of 42.1 million in the second quarter of this year, an increase of 1.7 million since the same quarter of 2014 (CIS.org). Clearly, Immigrants make u p a large part of the population in the United States, and for most immigrants, migrating to theRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Michelle Faed English 126 Immigration in the United States The United States of America, being a country established by immigrants, is known all over the world as the land of great opportunities. People from all walks of life travelled across the globe, taking a chance to find a better life for them and their family. Over the years, the population of immigrants has grown immensely, resulting in the currently controversial issue of illegal immigration. Illegal immigrants are the people whoRead MoreImmigration On The United States1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesImmigration Rights in the U.S. Immigration has occurred in the U.S. for for many years. Some say itÃ¢â¬â¢s the foundation of our country. America is the country where people leave their own country to live. People would leave due to mistreatment, hunger issues or job opportunities. America is known for starting over or accomplishing dreams, so immigrants travel over to follow those dreams. People emigrate from one country to another for a variety of complex reasons. Some are forced to move, due to conflictRead MoreThe Immigration Of The United States1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe vast majority of people living in the United States are descendants of immigrants, and yet majority of them are against them. It is quickly forgotten that America was built on immigrants that wanted a new life. A life free from harsh government, and the freedom from forced religion. The original settlers were immigrants that stole this land; immigrants continued to come for years. It is not a newly constructed concept that immigrants have always been a problem, ask any Native American. One usedRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Camarota (2007, p.1), director of the Immigration Studies Center, reports there are 1.6 million documented and undocumented migrants take up residence in the United States every year. Camarota goes on to say that the immigrants occupy one-eighth of the total population who settled in the U.S. The flood of aliens, to a significant degree, hinders the development of the United States. Therefore, the issues which relate to immigration must not be neglected, and the government should keep the numberRead MoreImmigration And The United States Essay1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Immigration has been a large conversation topic for such a long time in our country. We have worked on policies for immigration, and have made changes to them throughout the duration of our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. This topic is always worth mentioning and important, but has become a bigger topic once again due to presidential elections and the conversations being had about immigration from said elections. It is not necessarily easily seen if the concern with immigration is who is here legally or limitingRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA native of Mexico, Gonzalez came to the United States using a visa, to visit family members and in 1994, police convicted Gonzalez of the abduction and rape of a Waukegan, Illinois woman. During his conviction his attorney, Vanessa Potkin, addressed that at twenty years old, Gonzalez spoke very little English, had no criminal record, and yet the police wanted to pin the crime on him. Twenty years later, DNA from the crime cleared him of both charges, and Gonzalez is now threatened with deportationRead MoreImmigration : The United States1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe United States is a popular and powerful which many people admire. It is very true that the country prospect and is more enrich. O pening the border might improve the economy or can impact the job market for American citizens. It is the jobs of American citizens to be given more to this illegal immigrant. I believe the U.S. borders should remain closed. While it is clear that opening the borders can have benefits, I believe it is more important to keep jobs available for Americans. In my opinionRead MoreThe Immigration Of The United States1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFrench and European to settle in the New World. Since the colonial era, America has seen a wave of immigrants migrate in search of freedom and equality. Is this the same immigration today? Nearly 11.6 million immigrants from Mexico reside in the U.S. Today Immigration has a significant impact on many aspects of life in the United States, from the workforce and the classroom to communities across the country. Not all immigrants come to America legally whether as naturalized citizens, legal permanent residentsRead MoreImmigration And The United State s1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnineteenth century, the United States was relatively divided on the topic of immigration. A nation, which was essentially built by the work and concepts of immigrants themselves, was ready to close their doors to similar individuals looking for the same opportunity. While there was not a defined group of Americans in complete favor for new immigrants, there was a clear divide between those who were downright opposed and those open to compromise. Citizens opposing immigration backed up their arguments
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Ben Buono English 11-1 Ms. Gordon 11/30/17 Great Gatsby Thematic Essay A key topic in the Great Gatsby is the quest for the American dream, Can you agree? This demonstrates the prospect of the American dream, where characteristics of thorough work and expectation are shown. The novel Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald symbolizes many subjects, however the most general one offers to the extortion of the American dream. The American dream is portrayed as some individual beginning low on a money related social level. And also buckling down by progress. The American dream causes deceptive nature as well as has caused annihilation. Myrtle, Gatsby, and Daisy have all been destroyed and harmed by the fantasy. The want for a rich living is theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is ironic that Daisy was the one that killed her, since Myrtle was having an affair with her husband, Tom. This shows how the need for a lavish life and having the American dream, only initiated destruction in this novel and destroyed someones life. The desire for bliss is something that Daisy would have liked to have, yet by discovering she wedded the wrong man. At an early stage in the novel, Daisy discovers a mystery that Tom is cheating her. Jordan says, Ã¢â¬Å"She might have the decency not to telephone him a dinner time. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you think?Ã¢â¬ (Pg.20) Tom got a call from a lady during dinner hour, and Jordan thinks that the lady is Toms, proposing that he is with another person. Tom is by all accounts harsh towards her, and rather does not appear to think much about her. Daisy supposes she has everything, riches, love and satisfaction which all tie into the American dream, however then she finds that she has nothing and that she has been ruined by this particular dream. She thought she has all she wanted for yet truly acknowledged she didnt have anything. She has a kid, who does not appear to be vital to her by any circumstance. The child is never around, which conveys a considerable detail about Daisy. That she just wedded Tom for the cash, not the affection. The green light represents great significance in this book. It becomes clear that the green light is not Daisy, but is a symbol representing GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream of having Daisy. The truth that Daisy falls short ofShow MoreRelated Symbolism in The Great Gatsby Essay867 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGatsby Essay Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. For example, a dove is usually used to represent peace. In the novel The Great Gatsby, written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Fitzgerald uses a lot of symbolism to connect the characters with each other or to other objects. FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s use of symbolism helps advance his thematic interest in his novel of The Great Gatsby. In the Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald uses various colors, objectsRead More gattom Importance of the Automobile in The Great Gatsby Essay1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Importance of the Automobile in The Great Gatsby Ã F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby was written about a time of gaiety for a certain set of people. One of the major thematic aspects of the book is driving and the automobile. At the time the book was written the car had begun its establishment as a national institution. This is apparent in one of the central events in the book. Toms unfaithfulness first comes to light from a car accident in Santa Barbara. He misguides the car andRead MoreEssay about Jack KerouacÃ¢â¬â¢s On The Road - The American Quest1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescome to symbolize for many an entire generation of disaffected young Americans.Ã One can focus on numerous issues wh en addressing the novel, but the two primary reasons which make the book uniquely American are its frantic Romantic search for the great American hero (and ecstasy in general), and Kerouacs Spontaneous Prose method of writing. On The Road is an autobiographical first-person book written in 1951 and based on Kerouacs experiences of the late 1940s. At the time, America was undergoingRead MoreStudy Guide Literary Terms7657 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pages AP Literary and Rhetorical Terms 1. 2. alliteration- Used for poetic effect, a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a group. The following line from Robert Frosts poem Acquainted with the Night provides us with an example of alliteration,: I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet. The repetition of the s sound creates a sense of quiet, reinforcing the meaning of the line 3. allegory Ã¢â¬â Where every aspect of a story is representative, usually symbolicRead MoreANALIZ TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS28843 Words Ã |Ã 116 Pagesthe text reveals under close examination. Any literary work is unique. It is created by the author in accordance with his vision and is permeated with his idea of the world. The readerÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation is also highly individual and depends to a great extent on his knowledge and personal experience. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why one cannot lay down a fixed Ã¢â¬Å"modelÃ¢â¬ for a piece of critical appreciation. Nevertheless, one can give information and suggestions that may prove helpful. PLOT The Elements of Plot When we
Friday, December 20, 2019
The discovery of DNA is arguably one of the most important breakthroughs of genetics in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its discovery is littered with successes, failures, and even heartache. Numerous scientists are attributed to the discovery of DNA as a genetic material and even many more are also credited to the discovery of the molecule, structure, and function. Without the work of these remarkable scientists, the medical advancements over the last 50 years would not be possible. In 1865, while working with pea plants, Gregor Mendel published an article on inheritance based on his experiments with pea plant breeding. He found that inheritance is based on genes, which appear in pairs. Due to the experimental findings, he found that these pairs of genes come from both the mother and father plants and are responsible for the phenotypes exhibited by future generations. He developed the three laws of inheritance, which are: The Law of Segregation, the Law of Independent Assortment, and the Law of Dominance (Russell, 2000). The Law of Segregation states that an inherited trait is dependent on genes passed by either the mother or father that are randomly separated into each of its sex cells. The Law of Independent Assortment states that genes for each phenotype are separated from each other so that each phenotype is not dependent on one another. And finally, the Law of Dominance states that when two different genes are present the progeny with display the domi nantShow MoreRelatedThe Discovery Of The Dna1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesScientist Who Co-Discovered the DNA Says Our Genes Were Brought Here by Aliens Francis Crick (8 June 1916 Ã¢â¬â 28 July 2004) was an English scientist who was most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 alongside James D. Watson. Francis Crick Watson and Maurice Wilkins were jointly awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology for Medicine Ã¢â¬Å"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer inRead MoreThe Discovery Of Dna Testing1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesspecialized tools and processes while utilizing new discoveries to aid understanding of the past. One significant advancement is the discovery of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The discovery of DNA has greatly enhanced our ability to analyze ancient remains and interpret the findings within the field of archeology. To fully demonstrate the impact that DNA has brought to the field of archeology it is important to understand the historical discovery of DNA and initial integration into the field of archeologyRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Structure Of Dna1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRosalind Franklin and her Contribution to the Structure of DNA Specific Purpose: To enable the audience to reflect on how Rosalind Franklin contributed to the discovery of the structure of DNA. Introduction: I. Open with Impact: Could you having a significant role in one of the greatest scientific achievements of all time, but not getting credit for it? Not only that, but constantly putting yourself in harmÃ¢â¬â¢s way to make this discovery, and eventually dying because of it? II. Thesis Statement:Read MoreThe Discovery Of The Dna Structure2092 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOne of the most important things discovered and understood in biology within science, has been the discovery of the DNA structure. Where DNA is the abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, though it is more known by nearly everyone simply as DNA. The idea behind DNA is that it is a self-replicating material that can be found in all living organisms, especially humans. The structure of DNA was solved in the year 1953, and was solved by four very important scientists who were; Francis Crick, RosalindRead MoreThe Discovery of DNA Essay723 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDNA Ã¢â¬â the very molecule that defines who we are. It is still fascinating that a molecule that is so small that is not visible to the naked eye determines not just our physical appearance but also our mental wellbeing. Over 60 years, the discovery of the double helix DNA had impacted various fields relating to Biology and Chemistry, con tributing to the advancement of technology and subsequently mankind too. The discovery of DNA had opened up many opportunities in the field of genetics. By analysisRead MoreEssay On DNA Discoveries945 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiscoveries in DNA, cell biology, evolution, biotechnology have been among the major achievements in biology over the past 200 years with accelerated discoveries and insights over the last 50 years. Consider the progress we have made in these areas of human knowledge. Present at least three of the discoveries you find to be most important and describe their significance to society, health, and the culture of modern life. DNA per medical dictionary is defined as A nucleic acid that carries the geneticRead MoreEssay on The Discovery Of The Structure Of DNA1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJames Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA, but only by drawing on the work of many scientists who came before them. (Maddox, 2003) In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty published Ã¢â¬Å"Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal TypesÃ¢â¬ , which was the first scientific work to identify DNA as the molecule that carried genetic information, and became a breakthrough at that time. (Avery, Macleod, McCarty, 1944) BeforeRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Double Helix And Dna979 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDNA is the central dogma of modern biology, it is present in all living things from bacteria to mammals. DNA carries the genetic information of the organism and is used in processes like mitosis, meiosis and protein production. The reason as t o why I chose this topic specifically is because it is central to my favourite aspect of biology, genetics. Prior to the discover of the double helix and DNA itself there was some information and experiments done on genetics with what little knowledge theyRead More Discovery of the Structure of DNA Essay2374 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesDiscovery of the Structure of DNA On the last day of February in 1953, according to James Watson, Francis Crick announced to the patrons of the Eagle Pub in Cambridge, Ã¢â¬Å"We have discovered the secret of lifeÃ¢â¬ (Watson 115, 1980). As Brian Hayes, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"The Invention of the Genetic CodeÃ¢â¬ states, Ã¢â¬Å"If life ever had a secret, the double helix of DNA was surely itÃ¢â¬ (1). However, it was not the work of these two men alone that led to the discovery of the power the lies within the double helixRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Dna Double Helix1913 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe discovery of the DNA double helix is known to be accredited to James Watson and Francis Crick. Watson describes the events that led up to the discovery in his book The Double Helix. Although they both have put in a significant amount of time and work to find the structure of DNA, one individual who was key to putting their pieces together was Rosalind Franklin. Considering FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts and contributions to the X-ray diffraction images of DNA, which have helped Watson and Crick with their